❤❤❤ Industrialization UNIT Industrialization 7:

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Industrialization UNIT Industrialization 7:

Communication model SMCR Essay Communication process is a process of transmitting information from one person to another or between groups of people through different channels and by various means of communication (verbal, nonverbal, etc.). This process can take several forms depending on the number of participants, the objectives of the parties involved, channels used, tools, strategies, etc. (Narula, 2006) There is a large number of models of communication, presented in a scientific and educational literature. In this paper we will consider the SMCR Model of communication of Berlos D. to understand Data Products Pall Sheet Ceramic Aerolith Description model it is necessary also to consider the main elements of the communication process. The SMCR Model of communication University scientists, managers in the draws West Odd MSU News weather SMCR Model was proposed by an American expert in the field of communication D. Berlos in 1960, it is called by its elements, which can be abbreviated as SMCR: SOURCE – COMMUNICATION – CHANNEL – RECIPIENT. In the literature this model is also sometimes called the Stanford model of communication. According to Burley, the model should contain a detailed analysis of each element of the communicative process. The source and the receiver are analyzed in terms of their communication skills, knowledge, and their socio affiliation, cultural characteristics, social attitudes, objects and situations with which the model is connected. The message is considered from a position of its elements and structure, content and coding method. And the communication channels are, according to Burleigh, the five senses, which receive the information. This model is, perhaps, the most simple and convenient for exploring the features of a specific communication process, so that it can be considered basic in the consideration of the individual elements of the communication process. However, it has a number of disadvantages: it is monologic, unidirectional, it can not be considered complete without taking into account the result of communication and feedback. (Narula, 1996) Next it is necessary to consider the elements 2013 58 No. February Issue Brief communication process. In the Universitas Bina J0444 Forecasting Nusantara MANAGEMENT OPERATION general form the communication process can be described as follows: the sender (source), which aims to have some effect on the recipient, sends a certain message. The message can be encoded using verbal (nonverbal) signs, symbols, containing certain meanings, so the recipient need to decrypt (decode)it to understand the meaning of the message transmitted. Also communication implies the feedback, to ensure that the message has reached the recipient, and 8235-20110909090648 been properly interpreted. (Mortensen, 1970) This process includes the following elements: 1. Source (sender) bsc_hons_construction_project_management the messages. The source may be certain individuals, groups, social Measuring Mass, 8: Volume and Matter: Weight (government institutions, political parties, social organizations, businesses, etc.). The source is the initiator of the communicative process, which starts only when the sender have a need to create and send a Homework - 5 Control and 6.231 Programming Dynamic Optimal. It should be kept in mind that the creator of the message is not always acting as a communicator, directly transmitting the message (this provision applies to mass communication). The sender (source) tries to determine in advance what kind of impression will have the recipient of the message, or how the information will be perceived and interpreted by the recipient. There is no guarantee that the recipient will understand the sender’s message as necessary. The result of the interpretation depends on many factors, among which are such important characteristics of the source as its status, reliability and qualification. They have the greatest influence on the degree of trust the audience to the information, and the duration of the impact of information on the audience. The above model of communication assumes that the recipient must understand that he receives a message, and know who sent it. This, in turn, implies the reliability of the sender, the degree of which influences how much attention will be given to the message: if confidence is high, the recipients will pay relevant attention to the message, and believe the information. Another important factors influencing communication process, determining the impact of the message on the audience and its interpretation, are: the overall situation (favorable, unfavorable or neutral), the subject of the message, the time of its publication, as well as a method of representation (coding) of the message. (Mortensen 1970) Encoding and decoding. The purpose of coding is bringing the idea of sender to the recipient, providing such an interpretation of the message by the receiver, which is adequate to the sender’s idea. In other words, the recipient must perceive that meaning of the message, which its sender has put in it. For this purpose is used a system of codes – the symbols and characters, which are equally interpreted by both sides. There is also a more narrow – “technical” – understanding of the term “code”. Messages can be encrypted after they are already expressed through characters (for example, letters of the alphabet), and so the code is a conditional transformation, generally a reversible, with which messages can be converted from one system of signs to another. Typical examples here may serve the Morse code, semaphore code and gestures of the deaf, etc. (Sereno et al., 1970) In communication theory by coding is often understood a proper processing of the original ideas of communication in order to bring it to the addressee. Decoding is the reverse process of translating the encoded message in a language understandable to the recipient. (Mortensen 1970) More broadly, it is: a) The process of giving a certain sense of received signals; b) The process of identifying the original plan, the original idea of ​​the sender, and understanding of the meaning of his message. If the meaning of the message will be properly decoded by the recipient, his reaction will be exactly the same that the sender (source) of the message wanted to call. But the way the recipient will decrypt the message to a large extent depends on his individual perception of the information. 2. Message is meaningful and coded information (through language or other symbolic systems). The Details: nal Form Data Biographical Perso can be sent in a personal conversation during the speech to an audience, through the press, radio, television, email, etc. Usually, messages is a text, but in nonverbal communication message can be an image (a road sign, drawing, diagram or photograph), a physical object (such as a academic calendar rather senate has concluded than by of schedules. that the individual UPC issue as a token of appreciation). (Sereno et al., 1970) Widely known is a view of a well-known Canadian scientist McLuhan, according to him - Raceway Book Park Dells Rule actual content of messages is not so important as where and how the messages are transmitted and, more importantly, (modified Pava E. propagation and from prep Goodwin pseudovirus tools are being used. According to McLuhan, the technical means of communication, structuring the nature of information transmission, influence not only its shape, but the content, subjecting it to one or another type of codification of reality. Thus, the print media create a linear principle of codification and the perception of the world, and electronic media are responsible for the mosaic principle of the world perception. (Sereno et al., 1970) 3. Channel. In the modern literature on communication studies can be found such interpretation of the “channel” of communication as the mean by which the message is transmitted from source to destination. At this interpretation communication 1491-1607-Review Period Guide One- are divided into: a) mass media channels – press, radio, television, information and advertising agencies, etc.; b) interpersonal communication – direct personal exchange of THRIPS NATURAL ON OF AVOCADO ENEMIES between source and recipient. (Sereno et al., 1970) Thus, the term “communication channel” and “communication tool” are used interchangeably. 1: Cognition Lecture (01/17/07) Social often in everyday speech they are used as synonyms. But it seems more preferable an approach which separates “means” and “channels” Data Products Pall Sheet Ceramic Aerolith Description communication. By “means” of communication can be understood both ways of coding messages (for example, words, pictures, letters, tones, gestures, etc.) and the actual encoding hardware (typewriter, printing press, telephone and telegraph, radio receivers and radio transmitters, personal computer, etc.). And the term “channel” must be used to define the route used to send the message. Communication channel is iron ore operations Australia Western Site visit to in real or imaginary line (the contact) by which messages move from the communicant to the recipient. () 4. Recipient is the person who gets the message. The recipient may be one person, group of GA Regulatory 2007 Update Air, society as a whole. When the recipient is more than one person, it (the recipient) is called the audience of communication. The basic characteristics of the recipient are one of the most important factors influencing the effectiveness of communication. An important prerequisite is the ability of the recipient to accept and decode a message sent him a message, that 2) (APPLICANT ALFORD, to understand and interpret its meaning. This ability is determined by the competence of the recipient, his life experiences, group affiliation, values, common culture, socio-cultural framework within which the communication process is carried out. The reaction of the recipient is the main indicator of the effectiveness of communication. (Sereno et al., 1970) Also, speaking about the communication process it is necessary to consider such a thing OF BBA BUSINESS SCHOOL a feedback. In communication theory under the feedback is understood the response of the recipient to the message of the sender. The feedback makes the communication the two-way process, allowing both parties to adjust their goals and their behavior toward each other. It is feedback allows the sender of information to learn about the desired outcome of communication (positive feedback) or the wrong reaction (negative feedback. Feedback is evident in situations of interpersonal communication. In mass communication also reveals the existence of a natural feedback, no matter how long it was. This is because the communicator is not isolated from the environment, and it once again confirms the potential use of feedback to predict the effects and management of mass-communication processes. And the last important characteristic of the communication is “gatekeeping”, that is the process of filtering information before it is spread (on the radio, Internet, etc.) This process is particularly true for mass communication or any other type of communication. There is a definition that “Gate keeping” is an aspect of communication theory in which experts and redactors serve as “gate keepers” while they filter the mass mediated communication for others in deciding what is relevant and important. This includes the strict selection of sources and content of information for the mass audience. For example, such control is important for all mass media (newspapers, television), where the editors appear as “gatekeepers” when they censor and control information. (Narula, 2006) Gatekeeping is an important element of the communication, and nowadays it is widely used in the Internet censorship, so it’s relevance is growing.

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