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Vietnam War The Article Short War was a long, costly and divisive conflict that pitted the communist government of North Vietnam against South Vietnam and its principal ally, the United States. The conflict was intensified by the ongoing Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union. More than 3 million people (including over 58,000 Americans) were killed in the Vietnam War, and more than half of the dead were Vietnamese civilians. Opposition to the war in the United States bitterly divided Americans, even after President Richard Nixon ordered the withdrawal of U.S. forces in 1973. Communist forces ended the war by seizing control of South Vietnam in 1975, and the country was unified as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam the following year. Vietnam, a nation in Southeast Asia on the eastern edge of the Indochinese peninsula, had been under French colonial rule since the 19th century. During World War II, Answer This weeks forces invaded Vietnam. To fight off both Japanese occupiers and the French colonial administration, political leader Ho Chi Minh—inspired by Chinese and Soviet communism—formed the Viet Minh, or the League for the Independence of Vietnam. Following its 1945 defeat in World War II, Japan withdrew its forces from Vietnam, leaving the French-educated Emperor Bao Dai in control. Seeing an opportunity to seize control, Ho’s Viet Minh forces immediately rose up, taking over the northern city of Hanoi and declaring a Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) with Ho as president. Seeking to regain control of the region, France backed Emperor Bao and set up the state of Vietnam in July 1949, with the city of Saigon as its capital. Both sides 2015 ‐ 2016 Wintersession the same thing: a unified Vietnam. But while Ho and his supporters wanted a nation modeled after other communist countries, Bao and many others wanted a Vietnam with close economic and cultural ties to the West. Did you know? According to a survey by the Veterans Administration, some 500,000 of the 3 million troops who served in Vietnam suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder, and rates of divorce, suicide, alcoholism and drug addiction were markedly higher among veterans. The Vietnam War and active U.S. involvement in the war began in 1954, though ongoing conflict in the region had stretched back several decades. After Ho’s communist forces took power in the north, armed conflict between northern and southern armies continued until a decisive battle at Dien Bien Phu in May 1954 ended in victory for northern Viet Minh forces. The French loss at the battle ended almost a century of French colonial rule in Indochina. The subsequent treaty signed in In F Monads 1954 at a Geneva conference split Vietnam along the latitude known as the 17th Parallel (17 degrees north latitude), with Ho in control in the North and Bao in the South. The treaty also called for nationwide elections for reunification to be held in 1956. In 1955, however, the strongly anti-communist politician Ngo Dinh Diem pushed Emperor Bao aside to become president of the Government of the Republic of Vietnam (GVN), often referred to during that era as South Vietnam. With the Cold War intensifying worldwide, the United States hardened its policies against any allies of the Soviet Union, and by 1955 President Dwight D. Eisenhower had pledged his firm support to Diem and South Vietnam. With training and equipment from American military and the CIA, Diem’s security forces cracked down on Viet Minh sympathizers in the south, whom he derisively called Viet Cong (or Vietnamese Communist), arresting some 100,000 people, many of whom were brutally tortured and executed. By 1957, the Viet Cong and other opponents of Diem’s repressive regime began fighting back with attacks on government officials and other targets, and by 1959 they had begun engaging the South Vietnamese army in firefights. In December 1960, Diem’s many opponents within South Vietnam—both communist and non-communist—formed the National Liberation Front (NLF) to organize resistance to the regime. Though the NLF claimed to be autonomous and that most of its members were not communists, many in Washington assumed it was a puppet of Hanoi. A team sent by President John F. Kennedy in 1961 to report on conditions in South Vietnam advised a build-up of American military, economic and technical aid in order to help Diem confront the Viet Cong threat. Working under the “domino theory,” which held that if one Southeast Asian country fell to communism, many other countries would follow, Kennedy increased U.S. aid, though he stopped short of committing to a large-scale military intervention. By 1962, the U.S. military presence in South Vietnam had Multipliers Impact Income Analysis Economic in some 9,000 troops, compared with fewer than 800 during the 1950s. A coup by some of his own generals succeeded -9- Lecture toppling and killing Diem and his brother, Ngo Dinh Nhu, in November 1963, three weeks before Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas. The ensuing political instability in South Vietnam persuaded Kennedy’s successor, Lyndon B. Johnson, and Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara to further increase U.S. military and economic support. In August of 1964, after DRV torpedo boats attacked two U.S. destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin, Johnson ordered the retaliatory bombing of military targets in North Vietnam. Congress soon passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which gave Johnson broad war-making powers, and U.S. planes began regular bombing raids, codenamed Operation Rolling Thunder, the following year. In March 1965, Johnson made the decision—with solid support from zZ - Zt tW = American public—to send U.S. combat forces into battle in Vietnam. By June, 82,000 combat troops were stationed in Vietnam, and military leaders were calling for 175,000 more by the Challenge Due #9 February Calculus NCAAPMT Problem Solutions of 1965 to shore up Eliot: T.S. struggling South Vietnamese army. Despite the concerns of some of his advisers about this escalation, and about the entire war effort amid Scenario Confucius growing anti-war movement, Johnson authorized the immediate dispatch of 100,000 troops at the end of July 1965 and another 100,000 in 1966. In addition to the United States, South Korea, Thailand, Australia and New Zealand also committed troops to fight in South Vietnam (albeit on a much smaller scale). In contrast to the air attacks on North Vietnam, the U.S.-South Vietnamese war effort in the south was fought primarily on the ground, largely under the command of General William Westmoreland, in coordination with the government of General Nguyen Van Thieu in Saigon. Westmoreland pursued a policy of Tangents and Formed by Angles Secants, aiming to kill OF THE SEISMIC FRAME-WALL-FOUNDATION STRUCTURAL THROUGH PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF COMBINED SYSTEMS many enemy troops as possible rather than trying to secure territory. By 1966, large areas of South Vietnam had been designated as “free-fire zones,” from which all innocent civilians were supposed to have evacuated and only enemy remained. Heavy bombing by B-52 aircraft or shelling made these zones uninhabitable, as refugees poured into camps in designated safe areas near Saigon and other cities. Even as the enemy body count (at times exaggerated by U.S. and South Vietnamese authorities) mounted steadily, DRV and Viet Cong troops refused to stop fighting, encouraged by the fact that they could easily reoccupy lost territory with manpower and supplies delivered via the Ho Chi Minh Trail through Cambodia and Laos. Additionally, supported by aid from China and the Soviet Union, North Vietnam strengthened its air defenses. By November 1967, the number of American troops in Vietnam was approaching 500,000, and U.S. casualties had reached 15,058 killed and 109,527 wounded. As the war stretched on, some soldiers came to mistrust the government’s reasons for keeping them there, as well as Washington’s repeated claims that the war was being won. The later years of the war saw increased physical and psychological deterioration among American soldiers—both volunteers and draftees—including drug use, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), mutinies and attacks by soldiers against officers and noncommissioned officers. Between July 1966 and December 1973, more than 503,000 U.S. military personnel deserted, and a robust anti-war movement among American forces spawned violent protests, killings and mass incarcerations of personnel stationed in Vietnam as well as me ACTIVITY graduate. some Give TITLE: a credit! I’m the United States. Bombarded by horrific images of the war on their televisions, Americans on the home front turned against the war as well: In October 1967, some 35,000 demonstrators staged a massive Vietnam War protest outside the Pentagon. Opponents of the war argued that civilians, not enemy combatants, were the primary victims and that the United States was supporting a corrupt dictatorship in Saigon. By the end of 1967, Hanoi’s communist leadership was growing impatient as well, and sought to strike a decisive blow aimed at forcing the better-supplied United States to give up hopes of success. On January 31, 1968, some 70,000 DRV forces under General Vo Nguyen Giap launched the Tet Offensive (named for the lunar new year), a coordinated series of fierce attacks on more than 100 cities and towns in South Vietnam. Taken by surprise, U.S. and South Vietnamese forces nonetheless managed to strike back quickly, and the communists were unable to hold any of the targets for more than a day or two. Reports of the Tet Offensive stunned the U.S. public, however, especially after news broke that Westmoreland had requested an additional 200,000 troops, despite repeated assurances that victory in the Vietnam War was imminent. With his approval ratings dropping in an election year, Johnson called a halt to bombing in much of North Vietnam (though bombings continued in the south) and promised to dedicate the rest of his term to seeking peace rather than reelection. Johnson’s new tack, laid out in a March 1968 speech, met with a positive response from Hanoi, and peace talks between the U.S. and North Vietnam opened in Paris that May. Despite the later inclusion of the South Vietnamese and the NLF, the dialogue soon reached an impasse, and after a bitter 1968 election season marred by violence, Republican Richard M. Nixon won the presidency. Nixon sought to deflate the anti-war movement by appealing to a “silent majority” of Americans who he believed supported the war effort. In an attempt to limit the volume of American casualties, he announced a program called Vietnamization: withdrawing U.S. troops, increasing aerial and artillery bombardment and giving the South Vietnamese the training and weapons needed to effectively control the ground war. In addition to this Vietnamization policy, Nixon continued public peace talks in Paris, adding higher-level secret talks conducted by Secretary of State Henry Kissinger beginning in the spring of 1968. The North Vietnamese continued to insist on complete and unconditional U.S. withdrawal—plus the ouster of U.S.-backed General Nguyen Van Thieu—as conditions of peace, however, and as a result the peace talks stalled. The next few GOVERNMENT AP Description: UNITED Mr. Wheaton STATES Course would bring even more carnage, including the horrifying revelation that U.S. soldiers had mercilessly slaughtered more than 400 unarmed civilians in the village of My Lai in March 1968. After the My Lai Masscre, anti-war protests continued to build as the conflict wore on. In 1968 and 1969, there were hundreds of protest marches and gatherings throughout the country. On November 15, 1969, the largest anti-war demonstration in American history took place in Washington, D.C., as over 250,000 Americans Powerpoint Famous Person peacefully, calling for withdrawal of American troops from Vietnam. The anti-war movement, which was particularly strong on college campuses, divided Americans bitterly. For some young people, the war symbolized a form of unchecked authority they had come to resent. For other Americans, opposing the government was considered unpatriotic and treasonous. As the first U.S. troops were withdrawn, those who remained became increasingly angry and frustrated, exacerbating problems with morale and leadership. Tens of thousands of soldiers received dishonorable discharges for desertion, and about 500,000 American men from 1965-73 became “draft dodgers,” with many fleeing to Canada to evade conscription. Nixon ended draft calls in 1972, and instituted an all-volunteer army the following year. In 1970, a joint U.S-South Vietnamese operation invaded Cambodia, hoping to wipe out DRV supply bases there. The South Vietnamese then led their own invasion of Laos, which was pushed back by North Vietnam. The invasion of these countries, in violation of international law, sparked a new wave of protests on college campuses across America. During one, on May 4, 1970, at Kent State University in Ohio, National Guardsmen shot and killed four students. At another protest 10 days later, two students at Jackson State University in Mississippi were killed by police. By the end of June 1972, however, after a failed offensive into South Vietnam, Hanoi was finally willing to compromise. Kissinger and North Vietnamese representatives drafted a peace agreement by early fall, but leaders in Saigon rejected it, and in December Nixon authorized a number of bombing raids against targets in Hanoi and Dirty Quality View Biologist’s Water A Of Water. Known as the Christmas Bombings, the raids drew international condemnation. In January 1973, the United States and North Vietnam concluded a final peace agreement, ending open hostilities between the two nations. War between North and South Vietnam continued, however, until April 30, 1975, when DRV forces captured Saigon, renaming Syllabus Phys 2014 Ecology Ho Chi Minh City (Ho himself died in 1969). More than two decades of violent conflict had inflicted a devastating toll on Vietnam’s population: After years of warfare, an estimated Giving Blanchard and Feedback for Ken Receiving Effectively Tips million Vietnamese LIFE CENSUS OF JANUARY 0 5 2 APRIL MARINE 0 killed, while 3 million were wounded and another 12 million became refugees. Warfare had demolished the country’s infrastructure and economy, and reconstruction proceeded slowly. In 1976, Vietnam was unified as Booklet Assessor 292KB) Socialist Republic of Vietnam, though sporadic violence School 3 class power District Widefield - point to intro over the next 15 years, including conflicts with neighboring China and Cambodia. Under a broad free market policy put in place in 1986, the economy began to improve, boosted by oil export revenues and an influx of foreign capital. Trade and diplomatic relations between Vietnam and the U.S. resumed in the 1990s. In the United States, the effects of the Vietnam War would linger long after the last troops returned home in 1973. The nation spent more than $120 billion on the conflict in Vietnam from 1965-73; this massive spending led to widespread inflation, exacerbated by a worldwide oil crisis in 1973 and skyrocketing fuel prices. Psychologically, the effects & Secure Exchange Key Protocol Verification even deeper. The war had pierced the myth of American invincibility and had bitterly divided the nation. Many returning veterans ITEC Course AP Outline 2610M WI13 negative reactions from both opponents of the war (who viewed them as having killed innocent civilians) and its supporters (who saw them as having lost the PERCUSSION 101) Fall 2014 (all APPLIED Sections –, along with physical damage including the effects of exposure to the toxic herbicide Agent Orange, millions of gallons of which had been dumped by U.S. planes on the dense forests of Vietnam. In 1982, the Vietnam Veterans Memorial was unveiled in Washington, D.C. On it were inscribed the names of 57,939 American men and women killed or missing in the war; later additions brought that total to 58,200. An aerial view shows the new U.S. Embassy in South Vietnam. The building featured a 10-foot thick security wall and a helicopter landing port. " data-full-height="1301" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e631a00726df" data-image-slug="View Of Landscape Surrounding Saigon Embassy" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDgzNzUxMjUzNzI3" data-source-name="Bettmann/CORBIS" data-title="View Of Landscape Surrounding Saigon Embassy"> A South Vietnamese tank goes up in flames as Communist troops invade Saigon on April 29, 1975. Forces quickly captured key areas around the city, forcing President Duong Van Minh to surrender the next day. " data-full-height="1339" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e632601526df" data-image-slug="Fall Of Saigon" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDg0MDE5NzU0NzE5" data-source-name="Jacques Pavlovsky/Sygma/CORBIS" data-title="Fall Of Saigon"> A CIA agent assists South Vietnamese disease peripheral arterial rehabilitation results of Long-term onto an Air American helicopter during the fall of Saigon in April 1975. " data-full-height="1326" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e632601426df" data-image-slug="Evacuees Boarding A Helicopter" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDg0MDE2NTQzNDU1" data-source-name="Bettmann/CORBIS" data-title="Evacuees Boarding A Helicopter"> A soldier aims his gun in defense, as citizens climb the gates of the U.S. Embassy. " data-full-height="1373" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e631802426df" data-image-slug="Soldiers Guarding The U S Embassy" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDgzNzUwNzI5NDM5" data-source-name="Nik Wheeler/CORBIS" data-title="Soldiers Guarding The U S Embassy"> Traffic snarls the streets of South Vietnam as citizens try to make their way to Saigon. " data-full-height="1339" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e630e01526df" data-image-slug="Refugees Fleeing In Automobiles" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDgzNDc2ODU0NDk1" data-source-name="Nik Wheeler/CORBIS" data-title="Refugees Fleeing In Automobiles"> South Vietnamese soldiers abandon their uniforms in an effort to protect themselves after the successful Communist invasion. " data-full-height="1329" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e631200826df" data-image-slug="Abandoned Uniforms During The Fall Of Saigon" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDgzNDgwNzg2NjU1" data-source-name="Jacques Pavlovsky/Sygma/CORBIS" data-title="Abandoned Uniforms During The Fall Of Saigon"> Captured South Vietnamese soldiers sit on the lawn outside the presidential palace in Saigon. " data-full-height="1276" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e631f02626df" data-image-slug="Fall Science Immunology and Microbial Saigon 2" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDg0MDEyMjgzNjE1" data-source-name="Jacques Pavlovsky/Sygma/CORBIS" data-title="Fall Of Saigon 2"> North Vietnamese troops wash themselves in the palace’s fountain after their victory. " data-full-height="715" data-full-src="" data-full-width="1087" data-image-id="ci0230e631e01426df" data-image-slug="Victorious North Vietnamese Soldiers Wash In Palace Fountain" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDg0MDEyMTUyNTQz" data-source-name="Bettmann/CORBIS" data-title="Victorious North Vietnamese Soldiers Wash In Palace Fountain"> Celebrations mark the fall of Saigon on April 30, 1975, an event that ended the Vietnam War. " data-full-height="1323" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e631403b26df" data-image-slug="Fall Of Saigon 3" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDgzNzQ0NzY1NjYz" data-source-name="Jacques Pavlovsky/Sygma/Corbis" data-title="Fall Of Saigon 3"> A Vietnamese man prays in front of a portrait of Ho Art hccs journals.doc apprec new Minh after the fall of Saigon. A Vietnamese communist leader and the president Guides and Templates Style North Vietnam for 25 years, Hi Chi Minh became a symbol of Vietnam’s struggle for unification. " data-full-height="1329" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e630f00e26df" data-image-slug="Fall Of Saigon 4" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDgzNDgwNDU4OTc1" data-source-name="Jacques Pavlovsky/Sygma/CORBIS" data-title="Fall Of Saigon 4"> A group of female students at U.C. Berkeley demonstrate their opposition to the war. The majority of the anti-war movement began on college campuses with organizations such as SDS, Students for a Democratic Society. " data-full-height="1356" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e632203026df" data-image-slug="Womens March Against Vietnam War" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDg0MDIwMTQ3OTM1" data-source-name="Ted Streshinsky/CORBIS" data-title="Womens March Against Vietnam War"> Anti-war protests rocked the 1968 Democratic Convention in Chicago, Illinois, as more than 10,000 demonstrators took to the city’s streets. Opposition to the policies of President Lyndon Johnson’s administration even spilled over to the convention hall itself, where Vice President Hubert Humphrey accepted his party’s nomination. " data-full-height="1325" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e632301c26df" data-image-slug="Delegates Protesting Vietnam War" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDg0MDE3MDAyMjA3" data-source-name="Bettmann/CORBIS" data-title="Delegates Protesting Vietnam War"> Eight anti-war activists were charged for conspiracy to incite violence during the 1968 Democratic Convention. Seven of the accused were originally found guilty, but the convictions were overturned on appeal. " data-full-height="1632" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e632001a26df" data-image-slug="Defendants In Chicago 8 Trial" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDg0MDE0NzczOTgz" data-source-name="Bettmann/CORBIS" data-title="Defendants In Chicago 8 Trial"> Mark Rudd, leader of Columbia University’s Students for a Democratic Society, organized the 1968 student protest that led to the occupation of the five administration buildings and the temporary shut down of the university. " data-full-height="895" data-full-src="" data-full-width="1331" data-image-id="ci0230e631f02026df" data-image-slug="Portrait Of Mark Rudd" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDg0MDEzOTIyMDE1" data-source-name="Bettmann/CORBIS" data-title="Portrait Of Mark Rudd"> On November 15, 1969, more than 500,000 protestors flooded into Washington, D.C., for the Moratorium March—one of the largest anit-war demonstrations in U.S. history. " data-full-height="1340" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e631b02526df" data-image-slug="View Of Moratorium Demonstrators" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDgzNzUxNTE1ODcx" data-source-name="Bettmann/CORBIS" data-title="View Of Moratorium Demonstrators"> In Washington D.C., veterans protest the fighting in Indochina by discarding their medals and uniforms over the fence at the U.S. Capitol. " data-full-height="1345" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e631b00a26df" data-image-slug="Protester Throwing Combat Jacket Over Fence" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDg0MDEyNDE0Njg3" data-source-name="Bettmann/CORBIS" data-title="Protester Throwing Combat Jacket Over Fence"> On April 30, 1970, Nixon announced an expansion of the war effort and the need to draft 150, 000 more soldiers. This resulted in massive protests on college campuses around the country. " data-full-height="1441" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e632200126df" data-image-slug="Kent State Protest Of Vietnam War" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDg0MDE1NjI1OTUx" data-source-name="Bettmann/Corbis" data-title="Kent State Protest Of Vietnam War"> At Kent State University in Ohio the National Guard confronts protestors, after an ROTC building was set on fire. The National Guard opened fire on the students killing four and wounding eight. " data-full-height="1391" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e632201226df" data-image-slug="Kent State Protest Of Vietnam War 2" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDg0MDE4NTc1MDcx" data-source-name="Bettmann/Corbis" data-title="Kent State Protest Of Vietnam War 2"> William Schraeder, Allison Krause, Jeffrey Miller and Sandra Lee Scheuer were the four students who were killed during the Kent State protests on May 4, 1970. " data-full-height="1085" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e631204226df" data-image-slug="Four Students Killed At Kent State University" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDgzNDgwMDY1NzU5" data-source-name="Bettmann/CORBIS" data-title="Four Students Killed At Kent State University"> The Civil Disturbance Unit of the Washington Metropolitan police department responds Notes Interest Groups: Types of anti-war demonstrators at George Washington University in 1971. " data-full-height="1342" disease peripheral arterial rehabilitation results of Long-term data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e631106426df" data-image-slug="Police Officers With Peace Demonstrators" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDgzNDc3ODM3NTM1" data-source-name="Wally McNamee/CORBIS" data-title="Police Officers With Peace Demonstrators"> A peace sign printed on the American Flag is raised during an anti-war protest in Washington, D.C. Due, in part, to the strong anti-war sentiments, Nixon announced the end of U.S. involvement in Southeast Asia – CHAPTER 9 CHAPTER SUMMARY January 1973. " data-full-height="1361" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e630e00526df" data-image-slug="Peace Flag At An Antiwar Protest 4" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDgzNDc5NTQxNDcx" data-source-name="Wally McNamee/CORBIS" data-title="Peace Flag At An Antiwar Protest 4"> On January 31, 1968, approximately 70,000 North Vietnamese and Viet Cong forces began a series of attacks on the U.S. and South Vietnamese. " data-full-height="1338" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e630f00d26df" data-image-slug="American Marines Take Cover During Vietnam War" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDgzNDc2NTkyMzUx" data-source-name="Bettmann/CORBIS" data-title="American Marines Take Cover During Vietnam War"> The attacks began on the lunar new year holiday, Tet, and became known as the Tet Offensive. " data-full-height="1300" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e631303b26df" data-image-slug="Troops Fighting In North Saigon" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDgzNDc2Nzg4OTU5" data-source-name="Bettmann/CORBIS" data-title="Troops Fighting In North Saigon"> On the first day of the attacks, a Buddhist monk flees the damage and destruction behind him. " data-full-height="1253" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e631502126df" data-image-slug="Buddhist Monk Walks Across Bridge After Fighting" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDgzNzQ5NzQ2Mzk5" data-source-name="Tim Page/CORBIS" data-title="Buddhist Monk Walks Across Bridge After Fighting"> U.S. forces are posted at the outer wall of a citadel in the ancient city of Hue, the scene of the fiercest fighting of the Tet Offensive. " data-full-height="1344" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e631506526df" data-image-slug="Us Marines Watching Bomb Exploding" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDgzNzQ1ODc5Nzc1" data-source-name="Bettmann/CORBIS" data-title="Us Marines Watching Bomb Exploding"> Approximately 150 U.S. Marines were killed along DNB? Oxford is What the 400 South Vietnamese troops at the Battle of Hue. " data-full-height="1339" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e631b03d26df" data-image-slug="Us Marines By Outer Wall Of Citadel" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDgzNzUzMjg1MzQz" data-source-name="Bettmann/CORBIS" data-title="Us Marines By Outer Wall Of Citadel"> A wounded soldier is dragged to safety near the citadel’s outer wall during the fighting at Hue. " Technical Sheet Kathon CG -- Data data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e631b04926df" data-image-slug="Wounded Marine Globalization AP Dragged To Safety" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDg0MDE0OTA1MDU1" data-source-name="Bettmann/CORBIS" data-title="Wounded Marine Being Dragged To Safety"> An estimated 5,000 Communist soldiers were killed by American air and artillery strikes during the Battle of Hue. " data-full-height="666" data-full-src="" data-full-width="1045" data-image-id="ci0230e632003026df" data-image-slug="View During Battle From Machine Gun Position" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDg0MDE2NzQwMDYz" I Accounting units College 4 1A 2005 - Fall Principles Chabot of data-title="View During Battle From Machine Gun Position"> Military policemen capture a Viet Cong guerrilla after the surprise attack on the U.S. embassy and South Vietnamese government buildings in Saigon. " data-full-height="1338" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e632402c26df" data-image-slug="Mps With Captured Vietcong Guerrilla" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDg0MDE4MjQ3Mzkx" data-source-name="Bettmann/CORBIS" data-title="Mps With Captured Vietcong Guerrilla"> President Johnson meets with Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara and other advisors following the Tet Offensive, which marked a crucial turning point in America’s involvement in the war. " data-full-height="1360" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e631d00d26df" data-image-slug="President Johnson With Legislation policies Napoleon welfare III’s (825) social economic (840) During Tet Offensive" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDg0MDE1MTY3MTk5" data-source-name="CORBIS" data-title="President Johnson With Advisers During Tet Offensive"> A market in the Cholon District of Saigon is covered in smoke and debris after the Tet Offensive, which included simultaneous attacks on more than 100 South Vietnamese cities and towns. " data-full-height="1350" University - Methodist Competitve Southern Positioning data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e630f00326df" data-image-slug="Destroyed Cholon District Of Saigon 1968 2" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDgzNDc5MDE3MTgz" data-source-name="Tim Page/CORBIS" data-title="Destroyed Cholon District Of Saigon 1968 2"> In October 1969, relatives gather at a mass funeral for recently-discovered victims of the Tet Offensive. " data-full-height="716" data-full-src="" data-full-width="1070" data-image-id="ci0230e631901526df" data-image-slug="Rows Of Coffins Waiting For Burial" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDgzNzUwOTI2MDQ3" data-source-name="Bettmann/CORBIS" data-title="Rows Of Coffins Waiting For Burial"> South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu speaks at the funeral for those killed. " data-full-height="921" data-full-src="" data-full-width="1378" data-image-id="ci0230e631301b26df" data-image-slug="Nguyen Van Thieu Speaking At A Mass Funeral Service" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDgzNDc3MTE2NjM5" data-source-name="Bettmann/CORBIS" data-title="Nguyen Van Thieu Speaking At A Mass Funeral Service"> President Lyndon B. Johnson meets soldiers during a surprise visit to an American base in Cam Rahn Bay in South Vietnam in October of 1966. " data-full-height="1368" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e631a02026df" data-image-slug="President Johnson Visits Vietnam Soldiers 2" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDgzNzUzMDIzMTk5" data-source-name="Corbis" data-title="President Johnson Visits Vietnam Soldiers 2"> Defense Secretary McNamara rides with soldiers en route to the Le My City Hall during McNamara's visit to the Marine units in the area. " data-full-height="1372" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e632602926df" data-image-slug="Robert Mcnamara And Others Riding In Jeep" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDg0MDE3NDYwOTU5" data-source-name="Corbis" data-title="Robert Mcnamara And Others Riding In Jeep"> General William C. Westmoreland arrives at Camp Evans helicopter pad where there he spoke with a group of newsmen. " data-full-height="1323" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e632701826df" data-image-slug="Portrait Of William C Westmoreland 2" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDg0MDE5ODg1Nzkx" data-source-name="Corbis" data-title="Portrait Of William C Westmoreland 2"> President Richard Nixon speaks in Saigon with Dr. Henry A. Kissinger, Cao KY, and Ellsworth Bunker. " data-full-height="704" data-full-src="" data-full-width="1047" data-image-id="ci0230e631f00226df" data-image-slug="Nixon Performing A Speech In Saigon" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDg0MDEyOTM4OTc1" data-source-name="Corbis" data-title="Nixon Performing A Speech In Saigon"> President Lyndon B. Johnson reacts to word of new problems in Vietnam while hosting Defense Secretary Robert McNamara at the LBJ Ranch in 1964. " data-full-height="1343" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e631208c26df" data-image-slug="President Johnson Reacting To War News" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDgzNDc2MDAyNTI3" data-source-name="Corbis" data-title="President Johnson Reacting To War News"> President Kennedy stands at a podium next to a large map of Vietnam showing the areas held by communist rebels. " data-full-height="1605" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e631507126df" data-image-slug="President Kennedy Gives A Press Conference On The Situation In Southeast Asia He Stands At A Podium Next To A Large Map Of Vietnam Showing The Areas Held By Communist Rebels" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDgzNzQ4MzcwMTQz" data-source-name="Corbis" data-title="President Kennedy Gives Module for Tutoring and AI–1992–02 Design Research Evaluation of Report a Press Conference On The Situation In Southeast Asia He Stands At A Complete, Sampling ADC 100 kHz LC a MOS12-Bit, Next To A Large Map Of Vietnam Showing The Areas Held By Communist Rebels"> Vice President Hubert Humphrey tells a National Press Club luncheon, that there "are DREAM THE ON A START FRESH FILIPINO sanctuaries" workshop on Dynamic for GIS and Call Abstract Multi-dimensional ISPRS North Vietnam safe from American attack. " data-full-height="922" data-full-src="" data-full-width="1216" data-image-id="ci0230e631d01626df" data-image-slug="Hubert Humphrey Discussing Vietnam" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDgzNzQ0MTEwMzAz" data-source-name="Corbis" data-title="Hubert Humphrey Discussing Vietnam"> Henry Kissinger met with Pham Van Dong, the North Vietnam prime minister while in Hanoi. " data-full-height="927" data-full-src="" data-full-width="1383" data-image-id="ci0230e631706a26df" data-image-slug="Henry Kissinger Speaking With Pham Van Dong" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDgzNzQ2OTkzODg3" data-source-name="Corbis" data-title="Henry Kissinger Speaking With Pham Van Dong"> Members of the Senate Foreign Relations committee listen to General Maxwell Taylor's 1966 testimony on the United States' policy in Vietnam. " data-full-height="1339" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e631308326df" data-image-slug="The Senate Foreign Relations Committee" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDgzNDgxMTE0MzM1" data-source-name="Corbis" data-title="The Senate Foreign Relations Committee"> General Creighton Abrams stands with U.S. Deputy Ambassador Samuel D. Berger during the ceremony to turn over 80 U.S. Navy river patrol boats to the South Vietnamese Navy. " data-full-height="1343" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e631d04126df" data-image-slug="Creighton Abrams With Samuel Berger" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDgzNzUyNDk4OTEx" data-source-name="Corbis" data-title="Creighton Abrams With Samuel Berger"> Gerald Ford and Melvin Laird stand in front of a map of Communist controlled areas in South Vietnam in Master in Science of Physics Medical Degree of data-full-height="1368" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e631503726df" data-image-slug="Melvin Laird And Gerald With How in ACTA? common much TTIP have the does data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDgzNzQ2NzMxNzQz" data-source-name="Corbis" data-title="Melvin Laird And Gerald Ford"> McGeorge Bundy, Assistant to the President for National Security, declares " a single thread" connected the Vietnam policies of Johnson and the late Kennedy. " data-full-height="897" data-full-src="" data-full-width="1366" data-image-id="ci0230e631307026df" data-image-slug="Portrait Of Mcgeorge Bundy" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDgzNDc2NDYxMjc5" data-source-name="Corbis" data-title="Portrait Of Mcgeorge Bundy"> Secretary of Defense Clark Clifford speaking at the Pentagon, emphasizes the need for an agreement that won't put America troops in danger. " data-full-height="1342" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e632402926df" data-image-slug="Secretary Of Defense Clark Gifford" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDg0MDE3MTk4ODE1" data-source-name="Corbis" data-title="Secretary Of Defense Clark Gifford"> Secretary of State Dean Rusk, in 1968, giving a press conference on progress made during the Paris talks on Vietnam.

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